[171] The shops in the entranceway to the Bastille had been closed and the gates locked. The medieval fortress, armory, and political prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. [189], As a result, in the days after 14 July, the fortress was searched for evidence of torture: old pieces of armour and bits of a printing press were taken out and presented as evidence of elaborate torture equipment. It was the day of the common man being in charge. Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 31; Berchtold, pp. Schama, p. 341; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 43. [115] In the aftermath of the notorious "Affair of the Diamond Necklace" of 1786, involving the Queen and accusations of fraud, all the eleven suspects were held in the Bastille, significantly increasing the notoriety surrounding the institution. [139] Servants could sometimes accompany their masters into the Bastille, as in the cases of the 1746 detention of the family of Lord Morton and their entire household as British spies: the family's domestic life continued on inside the prison relatively normally. Sainte-Aulaire, Louis Clair de Beaupoil Le Comte de (1827). [179] By now around 83 of the crowd had been killed and another 15 mortally wounded; only one of the Invalides had been killed in return. Crook, Malcolm (1999). 12-14 July - Paris in serious disorder - Bastille taken - Control in the hand of the citizens. The people shall rule themselves. [22][C], Despite the improved Parisian defences, Henry V of England captured Paris in 1420 and the Bastille was seized and garrisoned by the English for the next sixteen years. [6] Work began in 1370 with another pair of towers being built behind the first bastille, followed by two towers to the north, and finally two towers to the south. [243], This article is about the building in Paris. [211], The storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, had been celebrated annually since 1790, initially through quasi-religious rituals, and then later during the Revolution with grand, secular events including the burning of replica Bastilles. [47] Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, is credited with beginning the modern transformation of the Bastille into a more formal organ of the French state, further increasing its structured use as a state prison. Schama, p. 340; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 58. [16] The Bastille's design was highly innovative: it rejected both the 13th-century tradition of more weakly fortified quadrangular castles, and the contemporary fashion set at Vincennes, where tall towers were positioned around a lower wall, overlooked by an even taller keep in the centre. "La vie quotidienne à la Bastille", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [226] The Bastille's archives are now held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. Originally built as a medieval fortress, the Bastille eventually came to be used as a state prison and later came to symbolize the harsh rule of the Bourbon monarchy. "Where did the triangle come from?Me and my friend were trying out different ways of writing BASTILLE and I really liked the ∆. [209] This proved an unpopular option and so instead he planned the construction of a huge, bronze statue of an imperial elephant. "Malesherbes and the Call For a Free Press", in Darnton and Roche (eds) (1989). By the time he succeeded in 1594, the area around the Bastille formed the main stronghold for the Catholic League and their foreign allies, including Spanish and Flemish troops. Muzerelle (2010b), p. 170; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 207; Coeuret (1890). Follow the fight for freedom – an idea whose time had come – taking two different paths, with two dramatically … [96] The office wing held the council room that was used for interrogating prisoners, the Bastille's library, and servants' quarters. Louis XIV used the Bastille as a prison for upper-class members of French society who had opposed or angered him including, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, French Protestants. [65] The Marais was a fashionable area, frequented by foreign visitors and tourists, but few went beyond the Bastille into the faubourg. [156] Pamphlets and magazines publicised Latude's case until he was finally released again in 1784. [72] Although in practice many were held at the Bastille as a form of punishment, legally a prisoner in the Bastille was only being detained for preventative or investigative reasons: the prison was not officially supposed to be a punitive measure in its own right. 133–5 and Coueret, p. 20. Latude's inaccuracies include his referring to a new fur coat as "half-rotted rags", for example. In July 1652, the battle of the Faubourg St Antoine took place just outside the Bastille. [169] The Bastille, already hugely unpopular with the revolutionary crowds, was now the only remaining royalist stronghold in central Paris, in addition to which he was protecting a recently arrived stock of 250 barrels of valuable gunpowder. [152] Linguet criticised the physical conditions in which he was kept, sometimes inaccurately, but went further in capturing in detail the more psychological effects of the prison regime upon the inmate. [199], The ruins of the Bastille rapidly became iconic across France. [169] To make matters worse, the Bastille had only two days' supply of food and no source of water, making it impossible to withstand a long siege. [187] Indeed, the more despotic and evil the Bastille was portrayed by the pro-revolutionary press, the more necessary and justified the actions of the Revolution became. [107], The role of the Bastille as a prison changed considerably during the reigns of Louis XV and XVI. [163], Meanwhile, in 1784, the architect Alexandre Brogniard proposed that the Bastille be demolished and converted into a circular, public space with colonnades. 106–7. [153][P] Linguet also encouraged Louis XVI to destroy the Bastille, publishing an engraving depicting the king announcing to the prisoners "may you be free and live! This was still its most (in)famous function by the era of Louis XVI, and the Bastille had seen a lot of prisoners across the years. The defenses were lowered and the crowd rushed in. [200] In the summer, a huge ball was held by Palloy on the site for the National Guardsmen visiting Paris for the 14 July celebrations. It was a sign that the Revolution had started, and the people shall seize the power from the wealthy. [169], At de Launay's request, an additional force of 32 soldiers from the Swiss Salis-Samade regiment had been assigned to the Bastille on 7 July, adding to the existing 82 invalides pensioners who formed the regular garrison. [121], Throughout this period, but particularly in the middle of the 18th century, the Bastille was used by the police to suppress the trade in illegal and seditious books in France. Its fall is the prime symbol for the French Revolution. The Bastille (/bæˈstiːl/, French: [bastij] (listen)) was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. B. A crowd thus gathered around the fortress, fortified by both the urgent need for powder, but by hatred for almost everything they believed was wrong in France. [103] Prisoners leaving the Bastille could be granted pensions on their release by the Crown, either as a form of compensation or as a way of ensuring future good behaviour – Voltaire was granted 1,200 livres a year, for example, while Latude received an annual pension of 400 livres. [51], In 1648, the Fronde insurrection broke out in Paris, prompted by high taxes, increased food prices and disease. In 1789 it was seen as a symbol of all that was wrong with the Old Regime, so on June 14, 1789 a mob broke into it. At the other end of the scale, lesser prisoners might get only "a pound of bread and a bottle of bad wine a day; for dinner...broth and two meat dishes; for supper...a slice of roast, some stew, and some salad". [224], Some relics of the Bastille survive: the Carnavalet Museum holds objects including one of the stone models of the Bastille made by Palloy and the rope ladder used by Latude to escape from the prison roof in the 18th century, while the mechanism and bells of the prison clock are exhibited in Musée Européen d'Art Campanaire at L'Isle-Jourdain. Although appointed by the king, the governor reported to the lieutenant general of police: the first of these, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, made only occasional visits to the Bastille, but his successor, Marquis d'Argenson, and subsequent officers used the facility extensively and took a close interest in inspections of the prison. [229] Research in West Germany during the 1980s examined the cultural interpretation of the Bastille against the wider context of the French Revolution; Hanse Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt's work, explaining how the Bastille came to be regarded as a symbol of despotism, was among the most prominent. [239] Godechot used this to characterise the taking of the Bastille as a genuinely national event of wider importance to French society. [154] Latude became famous for managing to escape from the Bastille by means of climbing up the chimney of his cell and then descending the walls with a home-made rope ladder, before being recaptured afterwards in Amsterdam by French agents. Funck-Bretano, p. 61; Muzerelle (2010a), p. 14. [113] Such a detention could be preferable to facing a scandal or a public trial over their misdemeanours, and the secrecy that surrounded detention at the Bastille allowed personal and family reputations to be quietly protected. Schama, p. 332; Linguet, p .69; Coeuret, p. 54-5. 17 July - King visits Paris and recognizes. Schama, p. 333; Andress, p.xiii; Chevallier, p. 151. [40] Bussy-Leclerc remained in control of the Bastille until December 1592, when, following further political instability, he was forced to surrender the castle to Charles and flee the city. Lüsebrink and Reichardt, pp. Bastille, medieval fortress on the east side of Paris that became, in the 17th and 18th centuries, a French state prison and a place of detention for important persons charged with various offenses. But when the representatives left, a surge from the crowd, an accident involving the drawbridge, and the panicked actions of the crowd and soldiers led to a skirmish. Intro On 14 July 1789, a state prison on the east side of Paris, known as the Bastille, was attacked by an angry and aggressive mob. [100], New kitchens and baths were built just outside the main gate to the Bastille in 1786. [186] Although the crowd had initially gone to the Bastille searching for gunpowder, historian Simon Schama observes how the captured prison "gave a shape and an image to all the vices against which the Revolution defined itself". Schama, p. 330; Coueret, p. 58; Bournon, pp. This image of the Bastille during the reign of Louis XVI is now largely believed to have been an exaggeration, with a smaller number of prisoners treated better than the general public had been led to expect. The medieval armory, fortress, and political prison known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. [141], The length of time that a typical prisoner was kept at the Bastille continued to decline, and by Louis XVI's reign the average length of detention was only two months. The Bastille was demolished by order of the Committee of the Hôtel de Ville. Gillispie, p. 247; Funck-Brentano, p. 78. The Bastille was occasionally used to hold prisoners, including its creator, Hugues Aubriot, who was the first person to be imprisoned there. [54] Barricades were erected across the city and the royal government fled in September, leaving a garrison of 22 men behind in the Bastille. [199] Old bones, probably of 15th century soldiers, were discovered during the clearance work in April and, presented as the skeletons of former prisoners, were exhumed and ceremonially reburied in Saint-Paul's cemetery. [34], During the 1550s, Henry II became concerned about the threat of an English or Holy Roman Empire attack on Paris, and strengthened the defences of the Bastille in response. [59] Condé's forces became trapped against the city walls and the Porte Saint-Antoine, which the Parlement refused to open; he was coming under increasingly heavy fire from the Royalist artillery and the situation looked bleak. [22] Henry V appointed Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, as the new captain of the Bastille. Most prisoners were allowed to bring their own possessions, with the most famous example being the Marquis de Sade who bought a vast quantity of fixtures and fittings, as well as an entire library. Funck-Brentano, p. 107; Chevallier, p. 152. [207] Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French First Republic that emerged from the Revolution in 1799, and subsequently attempted to marginalise the Bastille as a symbol. This was certainly the tone taken by writers before and during the revolution, who … "A Self-Defining Bourgeoisie in the Early French Revolution: The Milice bourgeoise, the Bastille Days of 1789, and Their Aftermath,". The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 was an important development in, and later a symbol of, the French Revolution. [1] The situation worsened after the imprisonment of John II in England following the French defeat at the battle of Poitiers, and in his absence the Provost of Paris, Étienne Marcel, took steps to improve the capital's defences. The Storming of the Bastille took place in Paris, France on July 14, 1789. [5] Marcel was subsequently removed from his post and executed in 1358. The King, although encouraged by his confidants to leave for a border area and hopefully more loyal troops, conceded and pulled his forces away from Paris and began to accept the revolution. [213] During the 1870s, the 14 July celebrations became a rallying point for Republicans opposed to the early monarchist leadership of the Third Republic; when the moderate Republican Jules Grévy became president in 1879, his new government turned the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille into a national holiday. The accuracy of all of Linguet's records on the physical conditions have been questioned by modern historians, for example Simon Schama. Prisoners described the standard issue furniture as including "a bed of green serge with curtains of the same; a straw mat and a mattress; a table or two, two pitchers, a candleholder and a tin goblet; two or three chairs, a fork, a spoon and everything need to light a fire; by special favour, weak little tongs and two large stones for an. [122] In the 1750s, 40% of those sent to the Bastille were arrested for their role in manufacturing or dealing in banned material; in the 1760s, the equivalent figure was 35%. [91] Trésor took its name from the reign of Henry IV, when it had contained the royal treasury. Almost nothing remains of this symbol of the French Revolution except for a couple of titanic boulders and a faded vestige of its once mammoth walls. The Bastille, stormed by an armed mob of Parisians in the opening days of the French Revolution , was a symbol of the despotism of the … [227], The Place de la Bastille still occupies most of the location of the Bastille, and the Opéra Bastille was built on the square in 1989 to commemorate the bicentennial anniversary of the storming of the prison. Religious and political tensions in Paris initially exploded in the Day of the Barricades on 12 May 1588, when hard-line Catholics rose up in revolt against the relatively moderate Henry III. Dutray-Lecoin, Élise (2010c). Popular myth believes Stanislas Marie Maillard was the first revolutionary to enter to the fortress. This was a symbol that the nobility, King, and Church elite were in a whole lot of trouble. Berchtold, Jacques (2010). [67] In 1685 Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had previously granted various rights to French Protestants; the subsequent royal crackdown was driven by the king's strongly anti-Protestant views. The Bastille was defended by 30 small artillery pieces, but nonetheless, by 14 July de Launay was very concerned about the Bastille's situation. [102], The Bastille was run by the governor, sometimes called the captain-governor, who lived in a 17th-century house alongside the fortress. Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 31; Sérieux and Libert (1914), cited Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 31. [65] Louis used the Bastille to hold not just suspected rebels or plotters but also those who had simply irritated him in some way, such as differing with him on matters of religion. [19] The Bastille was strategically vital during the period, both because of its role as a royal fortress and safe-haven inside the capital, and because it controlled a critical route in and out of Paris. [44] The Bastille was now an isolated League stronghold, with the remaining members of the League and their allies clustering around it for safety. Given that people could end up in the Bastille without any trial, it’s easy to see how the fortress developed its reputation: a symbol of despotism, of the oppression of liberty, of censorship, or royal tyranny and torture. [56] Elbeuf's attack required only a token effort: five or six shots were fired at the Bastille, before it promptly surrendered on 13 January. Under Louis XV and XVI, the Bastille was used to detain prisoners from more varied backgrounds, and to support the operations of the Parisian police, especially in enforcing government censorship of the printed media. The Bastille was a fortress built in the late 1300s to protect Paris during the Hundred Years' War. The Bastille was built in response to a threat to Paris during the Hundred Years' War between England and France. [209] After the restoration of the French Bourbon monarchy in 1815, the Bastille became an underground symbol for Republicans. Dutray-Lecoin (2010b), p. 24; Collins, p. 149; McLeod, p. 5. Although a column was planned to be erected in the square to commemorate the storming of the Bastille, for various reasons this never happened. [242] The Bibliothèque nationale de France held a major exhibition on the legacy of the Bastille between 2010 and 2011, resulting in a substantial edited volume summarising the current academic perspectives on the fortress. [61] Later in 1652, Condé was finally forced to surrender Paris to the royalist forces in October, effectively bringing the Fronde to an end: the Bastille returned to royal control. [150] Two authors were particularly influential during this period. What oath did the people take when they formed the national assembly? [200] A memorabilia industry surrounding the fall of the Bastille was already flourishing and as the work on the demolition project finally dried up, Palloy started producing and selling memorabilia of the Bastille. [94], The main castle courtyard, accessed through the southern gateway, was 120 feet long by 72 feet wide (37 m by 22 m), and was divided from the smaller northern yard by a three-office wing, built around 1716 and renovated in 1761 in a modern, 18th-century style. 344–5; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p .67. [161] As early as 1775, Louis XVI's minister Malesherbes had authorised all prisoners to be given newspapers to read, and to be allowed to write and to correspond with their family and friends. [229] The Annales School conducted extensive research into how order was maintained in pre-revolutionary France, focusing on the operation of the police, concepts of deviancy and religion. [140] The prisoners' library had grown during the 18th century, mainly through ad hoc purchases and various confiscations by the Crown, until by 1787 it included 389 volumes. [172] The crowd had gathered in an attempt to commandeer the gunpowder stocks known to be held in the Bastille, and at 10:00 am de Launay let in two of their leaders to negotiate with him. [241] This body of work influenced historian Simon Schama's 1989 book on the Revolution, which incorporated cultural interpretation of the Bastille with a controversial critique of the violence surrounding the storming of the Bastille. La Bastille ou « l’Enfer des vivants Â»? 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